Molybdenum – A Metal That Forms Weird Solutions!

Molybdenum  – A Metal That Forms Weird Solutions!

Hello everyone. Today I would like to dedicate this video to such a refractory metal as molybdenum. In the period table of chemical elements molybdenum belongs to the 6th group and is located above tungsten. Because of having a smaller atomic radius molybdenum is a bit more reactive than tungsten and has a lower electrochemical potential. Molybdenum does not occur naturally as free metal but it can be obtained through a chemical synthesis from minerals. This metal’s name is derived from the Greek word molybdos, meaning Lead since its ores were frequently confused with lead ores. This metal is produced by reduction of molybdenum trioxide with hydrogen. Pure molybdenum metal looks like a grey shiny metal which is extremely similar to tungsten. If two identical pieces of these metals are put together the difference between them will become clear as molybdenum looks smoother than tungsten. Besides appearance, the density of molybdenum is two times smaller than that of tungsten. Speaking of the physical properties of this metal molybdenum is a quite solid, yet fragile metal. This property can be tested with a firearm. *bang* *slow-motion bang* When a 9mm bullet is shot on a 3mm thick molybdenum plate it easily pierces a hole. Along with that, it can clearly be seen how the bullet tears out bits of molybdenum. That is why this metal is not likely to be used for producing tank armor. Speaking of the chemical properties of molybdenum in air this metal is quite resistant to being oxidized at room temperature. But, when heated up, it quickly starts oxidizing covering in molybdenum dioxide and trioxide layer. Uneven thickness of the oxide layer makes an oxidized molybdenum rod multicolored. Moreover, when electric current is passed through molybdenum wire because of this metal’s high internal impedance molybdenum wire starts heating up and glowing bright at the same time melting down. This metal’s melting temperature is more than 2500 Celsius degrees. Also, when pressed against a rotating grinding wheel molybdenum starts self-igniting producing molybdenum oxide which is used as glue for spraying vitreous enamel on metal. One of the most widespread of molybdenum’s chemical compounds is ammonium orthomolybdate which is used for producing pure molybdenum metal as well as corrosion inhibitor of some metals. When alkali is added, it forms sodium heptamolybdate which dissolves well in water. If such a solution is made more acidic with hydrochloric acid and if you add a piece of magnesium to it the hydrogen produced as a result of the reaction will reduce molybdenum in the solution producing so-called molybdenum blue. This compound is molybdenum oxide fine particles with different oxidation states. The color of molybdenum blue can differ, depending on the acidity. For instance, when PH value of greenish solution is increased to 4 the color changes to blueish. Whereas, when a very acidic molybdate solution is reduced, its color changes to reddish orange. I think that in very acidic solutions this reaction produces molybdenum tetrachloride. As a matter of fact molybdenum blue composition can be very unpredictable and very complex. Upon further reduction of sodium molybdate in acidic environment a black solution is produced and to determine the exact content of this poses a challenge because of being very complex. Probably it contains molybdenum compounds with different oxidation states. Adding of alkali to such a solution produces sediment which I believe consists of black molybdenum hydroxide and molybdenum tetrachloride along with lots of other chemicals. If anyone of you is a specialist in molybdenum compounds please share your suggestions about what you think happens in the test-tube. Nowadays, more than 80% of metallic molybdenum is used in metallurgy as a steel alloying addition which makes steel harder and more corrosion resistant. Molybdenum disulphide is used as an excellent lubricant for machine elements. Because of having a high melting temperature this metal is also used in the production of incandescent light-bulbs to make support wires for tungsten filaments. Moreover, molybdenum is a very essential mineral in living organisms. It serves as a metal heteroatom in the active site of many enzymes. For instance, in such an enzyme as xanthine oxidase which catalyses oxidation of hypoxanthine into xanthine which is a very important process in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing purines in human cells. To sum up, we can say that molybdenum is a very important metal which also plays an essential role in our organism. For the provided molybdenum plates for the experiments, I will thank the company Stanford Advanced Materials. I will put a link to their site in the video description. If you would like to support the continuous production of science videos like this one please support channel on Patreon. Link in the video description. Please like this video and subscribe to my channel to see many more, new and interesting.=^.^=

100 thoughts on “Molybdenum – A Metal That Forms Weird Solutions!

  1. I wish you had talked about the importance of Molybdenum in WWI. The mining of Mo in the United States by German spies allowed the production of superior artillery like Big Bertha. Mo gives steel a higher thermal resistance allowing for the increase in shell sizes.

  2. With low speed deformation, Molybdenum is quite ductile and malleable. I can bend or extend Mo easily but not a case in W. It's another story in high speed impact, though.

  3. Used in chrome-colbalt-nickel dental alloys. Always heard it was bad to breath…. To be fair, still looking for that metal which is breathable

  4. The molybdopterin moiety is also a crucial component of aldehyde oxidase, the second and final enzyme involved in ethanol metabolism.

  5. Molybdenum is a crucial element of life. In humans, there are over 60 Molybdenum enzymes in the human body. Humans also have Tungsten substituted for Molybdenum in similar enzymes that work in concert together. In the sea, a vast number of organisms depend on one or both of these metals whereas a deficiency of either usually has lethal consequences for simple sea life.
    This has been a problem in the adaptation certain types of specialized sea bacteria into freshwater lakes in California as the sea contains massive amounts of trace minerals. In humans Molybdenum levels are highest in the liver, kidneys and adrenals. While a deficiency of molybdenum is rare in humans, excessive copper intake can cause it.

  6. Find the difference
    Easy πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…±πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°πŸ…°

  7. I know this element Mo is in my materials we buy and machine. That is all I know so lets listen and learn what it is also used for and why? Thank you for the videos they are very educational to us. Same colors through heat like we get in our experience with titanium. Like the Molybdenum blue color a lot.

  8. 1:22 – units mismatch

    Pure Mo metal has high hardness and is brittle (like Chromium) making it unsuitable for most applications. However its widely used as alloying element with Nickel/Iron/Cobalt bases.

  9. Molybdenum wire is highly strong. A fine wire is used to remove screens from digitizers on phones.
    Very thin and strong wire. Scary Dangerous even.

  10. Why some video have vietnamese cc and other dont ? And your voise not seem to be an american where are you from ? I do love your video.

  11. DUUUUDE!!!!
    HOW could you firget that Molybdenum-99 is the parent source for Tc99m for nuclear medicine, we use tons of the stuff.

  12. I would like add that molybdenum is the most radioisotope used in the nuclear medicine. Its produce in experimental nuclear reactors through the uranium fission

  13. Molybdate anion is a good test for dissolved silica in the form of metasilicate or silicic acid, and will detect a few parts per million of it. To a solution of silicate, add some ammonium molybdate solution followed by dilute acetic acid in excess. Over several minutes, a yellow colour will develop, which is a complex anion of silicon-molybdate or molybdo-silicate. The strength of the yellow colour can be measured with a spectrometer and it is a quantitative measure of silica if run with a standard. Now add some crystals of hydroquinone, and the solution turns a beautiful blue.

  14. πŸŽ„πŸŽ„πŸŽ„πŸŽ„πŸŽ„πŸŽ„πŸŽ„




  15. ΠΎΡ… Π΅Π±Π°Π°Π°, Thoisoi Π°Π½Π³Π»ΠΈΡ‡Π°Π½ΠΈΠ½….

  16. ΠŸΡ€ΠΈΠ²Π΅Ρ‚, я знаю Ρ‡Ρ‚ΠΎ Ρ‚Ρ‹ знаСшь русский,я Π²ΠΈΠΆΡƒ Ρ‚Ρ‹ знаСшь английский. Π£Π΄Π°Ρ‡ΠΈ

  17. @Thoisoi2
    Please let me correct your english pronunciation – which can make your videos hardly understandable.
    Words that contain "TH" in the first part of the word (like THE, THOUGH, THIS, THAT, THOSE, THESE), you should pronunce it as "D" instead of "Z". In the case of THANK, it is pronunced as "T". I think your speaches would be much less disturbing to be heard by your viewers. I don't want to be rude or be offensive to you, so please don't take it as an offense. I think your videos are great and informative, but your pronunciation seems to need some amending.

  18. Can you do a tour of your lab ? I’d be very interested in that. Yours sincerely
    By the way, this video was very cool.πŸ‘

  19. A lot of chemical data, although a bit "oldschool" one too, is to be found here:

  20. There isn't much between the molybdenum complex shown and some copper oxidation states. Would be interesting to see how the electronic splitting occurs

  21. Look up the movie THE BROTHERS O'TOOLE with John Astin. The gold miners thought they were broke because there was no gold in their claims, only Molly-be-damn.

  22. This supporters of light turn in the bulb are fragile. This elements frails to tiny pieces. Despite to name it is unlike to lead. Molybdeniu is hard and frail.

  23. Obviously the proper name for the black colored form is chemical X. Drink it and you'll become a powerpuff girl

    (disclaimer to reader, dont actually do this. I trust most of you wont or cant, but to those who can and think this is a good idea, dont.)

  24. Molybdenum is also good in refining because of its ability to help resist HTHA (High Temperature Hydrogen Attack) that can destroy regular carbon steel over time.

  25. can we separate or study about the different molybdenum compounds of different oxidation state in the complex black solution using chromatography?

  26. when I had seen your channel. a few years ago it was small but now you have almost every element on it I'm so proud lol

  27. React the molybdenum with radium and see what happens… Don't worry it's not violent reaction….. Do it just and you will get 10000000 like instantly

  28. I work with this metal in manufacturing metal catalysts for oil refining. It's never the sole metal used in catalysts to which we add other metals with it. The two metals that's used with this is either Nickel or Cobalt. (NiMo) or (CoMo).

  29. Molybdenum actually does occur naturally as a free metal. Actually, there are two minerals that are the native (natural) metallic molybdenum. One is called molybdenum and is known, e.g., from the Moon, but also from Kamchatka volcanic fumaroles. The other one, known mainly from extraterrestrial bodies, is hexamolybdenum (hexagonal polymorph of the otherwise cubic = isometric molybdenum). The two minerals are extremely rare and their crystals and grains are invisible by either naked eye or even a simple binocular.

  30. Molybdenum in a body is not a mineral. This is a common "abbreviation" used especially in America, but it is wrong. A mineral is exclusively a crystalline compound that forms naturally. The biogenic organomolybdenum compounds are not crystalline and, as such, they are MINERAL SUBSTANCES, but not minerals.

  31. look. accents like from your country sound absolutely badass. but can you try to make it less thick? i can barely understand what is said

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