Iron – Periodic Table of Videos

Iron – Periodic Table of Videos


The thermite reaction which is the reaction
of aluminium and iron oxide is used to make iron and because
aluminium has much stronger bonds to oxygen than iron that
the reaction produces an enormous amount of heat and you
can use this for welding pieces of metals together. So this is a thermite mixture, it is a mixture
of iron oxide and aluminium powder and we are going to do some
redox chemistry and we are going to generate some
molten iron which will hopefully stream from the bottom
of the flower pot. So here you can see the black particles
of the iron oxide and the silver particles are the aluminium
powder. So we get some heat on this and we start an instantaneous
redox reaction so the aluminium and the iron oxide
swap oxygens so the aluminium will become oxidised and
the iron will become reduced hopefully we will generate
a lot of molten iron which should come from the bottom of
the test tube … of the flower pot. Alright! Right. Now there is a story about students in Berkley
that some students, or group of students, decided to
do a practical joke on a tram of the sort that has one door where
you go in and another when you go out. So a big group of
students queued onto the tram and got into the front and there
were enough of them so they could actually come out at
the end at the other door and form a loop so they were just
going round and round and round so the tram could not
leave because they were just more and more people getting
on. We’re going to run out of tape. And while they were doing this, other students
went down under the tram and set off two thermite reactions
and welded the metal wheels of the tram to the steel
rails so that when the tram tried to leave, when the students
eventually stopped going round and round, it was firmly welded
to the tracks and could not move at all. It’s gone out. Tell us about what is going on mate! So instantly the thermite reaction starts
and you can see that it’s so hot that it burnt a whole through
the bottom of that terracotta flower pot. But if we go in close
now Brady, you can see all that really quite nice molten
iron. Now that is so hot that the iron itself has melted and it
has formed this really quite big goo in the bottom on the
sand. Do you encourage these sorts of practical
jokes? No, no, no, no ,no, our students are far more
responsible. So as soon as the fire work, or the sparkler,
hit the top of the thermite reaction, in the top of here, it
started obviously, instantaneous redox reaction. So this is where
the metals were fighting for the oxygen, the aluminium
won that battle and the aluminium came out of this reaction
as aluminium oxide. The iron was reduced and we can see
that now in the bottom which is really hot so I am not going
to get too close but you can see all of this really, really
hot iron. The iron was molten, it dribbled out through the bottom
of the flower pot and it is now cooling. It didn’t dribble out of the bottom of the
flower pot. Well it smashed its way out of the flower
pot. Well you can say that iron is in my blood,
it is in your blood as well. It is iron that gives haemoglobin
the red pigment in your blood, its red colour. So the reaction we saw was about 5 minutes
ago and the iron that was generated is still glowing red hot
and you can see it has fused itself to the bottom half of the
flower pot, which it broke in its tumultuous step forward. It is an absolutely essential element to life,
except for crabs which use copper but you will have to hear
about that later. So iron is a really, really abundant metal
which is used in lots and lots of structural material, so you get
to see lots of pieces of iron around, some of the racking
and even in fact some of these pieces of equipment have got
high iron content. They have got other elements in them
to form alloys like stainless steel. I have an extremely long standing interest
in its chemistry and in particular, I made one compound of
iron so called iron tetracarbonyl which had 4 groups round it
and everybody had expected that it would have a shape like one
of these. Shaped with tetrahedron like that whereas, in fact,
it had a much more irregular shape, the 4 groups were arranged
like this, and so every since this, every time I hear
the word iron I get quite excited. So this is iron wire, ok, and as you can it
is a very small wire. It is 0.2 in diameter and you can see the
shiny material underneath is iron that has not undergone
oxidation so this is where it has been protected from the oxygen
in the air now if we look at the iron at the top we can see
that this looks really familiar especially because it looks like
some of the rust which we can see at the bottom of some of our cars.
So here is some iron oxide on top of the iron. The very first chemical experiment I did the
chemical reaction was with iron and I think the same is true
for many generations of school children. I heated up
iron and sulphur together and made iron sulphide sort of blackish
solid but then we put acid on it and got a terrible
smell of bad eggs and this was my introduction to chemistry
and I really loved it.

100 thoughts on “Iron – Periodic Table of Videos

  1. Hmmm… a practical joke is destruction of property via vandalism ?
    Would that not also come under the Terrorist Act these days ?

  2. What is the price of Al and iron oxide? 
    where can I get some? (before the winter comes?)
    I want to cook with it too. (with the residual heat from the formed iron)
    What about the smoke that's formed?

  3. 1:10, that's not a prank. It's known as 'vandalism' . Admittedly, it's very geeky and scientific vandalism, but vandalism nonetheless.

  4. practical joke? sounds more like massively expensive public destruction plot, that probably caused people to be late for days at work/school.
    and im sure they found the students and im sure they had to do years in jail.
    lol but i like it. id do it again.
    maybe its just an antidote.

  5. my first reaction wax NaOH + NH4Cl and heated. Though it was quite hard to smell the ammonia coming out, it still was fascinating, because it was my first reaction.

  6. So can now someone explain why when a Thermite reaction occurs around a large amount of ice, you get an explosion ? Im very curious

  7. A word about terra cotta pots. If you don't want them to split with heat, dry them a few hours in a oven so there's no moisture in the porous clay.

  8. By the way, it would be nice if you could incorporate Tom Lender's song where he SINGS the entire periodic table into one of your videos.

  9. Iron is also the heaviest element which is formed in stars. Red Giant stars start to fuse hydrogen atoms to form helium. This helium is fused to form carbon, and Iron is the last product of these fusing reactions. These heavy elements "poison" the core of the star, turning them into supernovae. During supernova stage, heavier elements than iron are formed.

  10. I like iron for its use in weapons: iron with a tiny amount of carbon forms steel which can be used to make beautiful swords and powerful swords.

  11. I remember one very interesting chemistry class in high school where we drop a very small amount of Na in a bucket of water. Very cool reaction!

  12. whats the difference between iron oxide and red iron oxide? most of the people i seen make thermite reactions use red iron oxide or manganese dioxide.

  13. I'm curious, why do I always see people burning thermite in flower pots? is it just because they're cheap and have the hole in the bottom or is there more to it than that?

  14. I was hoping to here more about the metallurgy of steel and how iron changes it's crystal structure from BCC to FCC at 912 °C

  15. The problem with their reaction is that they did not protect the iron from oxygen in the air. When the iron came out the bottom of the flower pot it did so with a huge burst of white sparks. This was the iron burning as it hit the air. The fact that the iron had to fall several inches which causes it to splash thus increasing its surface area does not help either. The glowing blob you see at the end of the reaction is really a porous ceramic of iron oxide, not pure or solid iron. So their setup reduced the iron oxide by reaction with aluminium, but then the reduced iron was quickly turned back into iron oxide via a secondary reaction by burning the iron in the atmosphere. That produced even more heat and impressive sparks. All this is fine if the main product you are looking for is heat, but if you are trying to end up with a chunk of iron metal at the end you have to protect the iron from oxygen until it has cooled below the kindling temperature (temperature varies based on alloy and percentage of available oxygen in the atmosphere). So for future reference, allow the molten iron to flow without splashing and keep iron in an oxygen free atmosphere until cools. I use a blanket of Argon to keep the iron safe until cool. If you see white sparks at the end of the reaction then you did something wrong.

  16. as a welder the story about the people wielding the tram into place is vaguely disappointing because i mean you can basicly remotely weld the thing i thought they were going to set charges on the door hinges all get off the tram and set the fuze as it goes off doors closed.

  17. I accidentally re-discovered the thermite reaction aged 12 in science class, simultaneously discovering that heat-proof mats aren't entirely heatproof :p

  18. Just so that everyone can calm down about the prank story – this one belongs firmly in the urban legend category. Some say it was students from UC, others say MIT. Some versions of the story say that there were multiple students who had to distract the driver long enough to weld the wheels, others say only one student was tasked with keeping the driver busy. This is the kind of thing that surely would have been reported in local (or even metro) newspapers, but no one has ever managed to find confirmation that this prank ever happened.

  19. Took a deep breath when they used fermite. I was bracing myself for the 9/11 conspiracy nuts in the comments. At the time of writing I was pleasantly surprised.

  20. What happens to iron when it breaks down? There are some rocks out the back of my house that are high in iron content, high enough that a magnet will stick to them. But i have noticed that almost all of them are being hollowed out from the inside. To my eye it looks like the rock is changing from the inside, into a clay like substance.

  21. the cameraman in this and other videos have no idea what he is doing. I hope he has quit producing the movies. the invectives that I would like to use to describe his way of disturbing my eyes when I watch those videos do not express enough of my contempt. the people in the videos are experts in their fields. It is just this amateur cameraman who for years has not learned a bit of how to show materials of interest to the public.

  22. Fun fact: in close proximity of magnetar (few thousands kilometers should be enough), there will be so strong magnetic force, that it will pull iron atoms so they will be ripped off from blood, causing hemoglobin decomposition and probably quite painful death in seconds.

  23. So why does the aluminum want to grab the oxygen from the iron vs. the oxygen from the air? If you let the thermite sit exposed to air for a long time, wouldn’t the aluminum oxidize with air and perhaps never react with the iron oxide at all. There is a lot to the mechanics of what is going on than the superficial talk in the video.

  24. That was interesting. So ali powder + iron oxide powder = liquid iron + Ali oxide. I’m thinking this would be a way to make moulded iron items.

  25. Isn't it time for a new video on iron? I especially miss the mentioning on how much the physical properties can change depending on what it is alloyed with and how it's treated (alloy, warm forming, cold forming and heat treatment) which has made it the key to much of today's technology.

  26. This element is also what is the demise of massive stars 8 times the mass of the sun and up. Once a star makes this element, it has been sentenced to death by supernova.

  27. Steel is pure elemental iron. The iron from a smithy or foundry is impure as it has carbon in it. It wasn't until the design of the blast furnace that iron could be purified into steel ( then carbon and other things could be added to create different properties ).
    I discovered my Land Rover suffered from Iron (II) oxide. That's rust in somewhat anerobic conditions, in this case under cracked and damp underseal. As I chipped it off, the rust was blue and I could it turned into red Iron (III) oxide, rust, as I watched.

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