Hello! This is the ArmorySmith Channel. This is where the armor is forged. For starters, I will answer the question that is often asked in the comments. The music, like you can hear now, I improvise by myself. Once I wanted to be a professional musician, but it didn’t work out. The recordings are not particularly high quality, which is why I don’t share them. Maybe in the future. The helmet I’m making now is created based on two artifacts. Italian salet (this is what it says on the picture), and a visor which looks like it is german. Even though the source is the skull of the sallet, most likely the correct classification for this helmet is – close armet for the tournament on foot with clubs. Everything begins with the purchase of the steel sheet for me. In the medieval, they had to mine the ore, melt it into steel. Then hammer it into thin sheets and only after it starts the work. For such things as an armor, one needs a high-quality metal. One of the main scores of the steel supply in Europe was the Innsbruck city (modern Austria). Probably, the german steel was stronger than in other countries and was easier to temper. Most likely, the german steel melters had discovered the properties of Mangan, which gives the steel additional strength. In 1504, because of the order of Maximilian 1, a lot of armorers were relocated to Innsbruck, big manufacturies were founded. After that Innsbruck becomes one of the main arms centers, And the arms manufacture became the first production of the arms in Europe. Here is an interesting mention that the poison was added in the iron ore in some areas. Al-Idrisi, Arabian geographer of the XII century writes, that in Armenia, such iron ore was used to make knives and swords, which when used, caused real deathly wounds. But most likely the owner of the mine decided to raise the demand on his products. At the moment I’m punching the square holes in the visor. The nonsense is that I forged the skull of the helmet in a day, and the holes took me whole day as well. At the same time, the work is not equally complicated. One needs certain physical shape and skills to forge the helmet, and cut the pieces of metal can even a teenager. At the beginning of the 14th century, 14 years was a regular age to start education as an apprentice of the master. It was common to leave the teenager in the complete master’s care. The master needed to feed, clothe and teach him. In exchange, the apprentice did additional housework. The bar had been raised in the 15th century. The apprentices were not taken on unless they were 16, and the standard was to start ar 18. There were a couple of reasons for it. A lot of elite guilds such as drapers, goldsmiths, blacksmiths required the students to have a school education before they started their apprenticeship. This way the boys started to spend more time in school, than their peers 200-300 years ago. The parents of rural teenagers let them go to school after they had worked in the field for several years. The leave of the son to be an apprentice meant the inevitable loss of the workforce for the family. While the duration of the study was 8, 9 or even 10 years, the apprentice obtained the status of the self-dependent (adult) the right to manage his life, property and free time no sooner than at 23 years of age, and sometimes later! And now imagine the modern teenager who got to the Medieval. It may seem interesting and fascinating, but I would feel sorry for the guy. One more unusual fact. There is a mention of the law which said: If the student seduces the wife of the master, such student will have to work for the master for 15 more years. Now you see me removing the plate from the tempered helmet. Such detail is called “a witness”. It is the same thickness and the same steel type as a helmet. After forging I check it with the hit, it should break like the glass would. This way I can make sure that the tempering has gone right. After the tempering, it is necessary to do the temper hardening. This will lower the hardness, but increase viscosity. After doing it, I check the witness one more time. I hit it very hard, to see if the plate cracks. It is necessary that the steel is deformed without any cracks. But the cracks are unavoidable with critical pressure. After all, I broke the plate. But I was hitting with the edge of the sledgehammer in the same spot on the hole. The hits in fights will be much weaker. Charles Ffoulkes in his book “The armourer and his craft” writes in the beginning: “There are certain essential rules which must be observed in the practice of every craft; but in most cases only one or two are necessary for the production of good work, but, it would seem that 5 are essential for the armourer for the production of satisfactory work. 1. Suitability for purpose. 2. Convenience in use. 3. Recognition of material”. Most likely he talks about clothing, fashion, and materials of that time. “4. Soundness of the constructional methods. 5. Subservience of decoration”. Let’s go through these points in detail, projecting them on modern buhurts and tournaments in the medieval style. 1. Suitability for purpose. As well as in the late-medieval tournaments, in modern buhurts, the real fighting weapon is prohibited, the fights are executed with blunt swords, axes, poleaxes, clubs without any stabs. There is no need for the helmets which would protect from stabs. Which is why the helmets were made to provide maximum vision and comfort. By the way, the stabbing weapons are prohibited because of the high risk of injury, but some accidental hits still reach the face of the fighter. This is why I didn’t make the visor exactly as the original but added bars on the eye-slits. The medieval tournament armet was forged with one skull and one visor, which was lifted up with the help of hinges. The visor was a grate made of wires riveted to it. Such visor provided great vision and protection from the hit by wooden tournament club. Of course, it couldn’t have been used in the jousting or real fight. Such a helmet can be found in “Tournament book”. In my case, combining the skull and the visor of different helmets we get protection with good vision and safety. But this can’t be considered a reconstruction. The difference in time periods between the pieces is too big, after all. And the visor is very similar to German ones of the 16th century. And the skull is most likely Italian, end of 15th century. 2. Convenience in use. The armorer should remember, that it is necessary not only to protect the fighter but to provide the movability of head and arms. If the helmet abuts the shoulders and gets it the way of striking a hit, it would give the advantage to the enemy. And the direct objective of a good armorer is to give his client an advantage. The double visor used in armets during the war, not in the tournaments, was a sort of breakthrough. While the top visor was lifted up, the knight could see, breathe and hear quite good. While the small part of the head was uncovered. And with the visor closed, the knight could fearlessly ride to the enemy’s formation not worrying about possible fatal stabs to the face. Today the grate visor is the great option for knight tournaments. It has good vision and breathing. 3. Recognition of material. In the 16th century, when the armorer wanted to show off his technical skill, we can find many suits made to imitate clothing or shapes of the human body. And in our days modern masters make the armor stylizing or reconstructing the armor of the Medieval. Today the armorers tend to reconstruct the Medieval feel or the significant historical events. 4. Soundness of the constructional methods. The medieval armorers have developed a lot of ways to forge or assemble the parts of the armor. Those were hinges, loops, sliding rivets, hidden straps under the plates and many more. But in the light of modern fights, not all methods are successful. Also, industrial progress offers a lot of ways to simplify production. For example, welding. With the help of welding, it is possible to finish the skull in one day, and it wouldn’t be visible. But to make the helmet one-piece will take 4-5 days. And the main thing – I can easily buy a sheet of steel of even thickness. Without it, the work would be very hard. Subservience of decoration. The parade armor of the medieval could have been decorated with kg of the brass decoration, be completely engraved or with embossing using grotesque shapes. But for modern fights, it is sports equipment. In the medieval style. Which, by the way, needs to be fixed constantly. Hence, the decoration on the helmet is just some elegant rivets on the visor and a plume holder. In my work, I instinctively followed the rules of Charles Ffoulkes. Which is why creating the armor for reenactment and sports I clearly understand what the client needs. In the comments, I often get asked how the armor was made without using electricity and modern tools. The hardest part was to acquire high-quality steel and to forge the bigger sheet preserving the even thickness. The water hammers were used to do this. The polishing was made with the help of the water mill. I talk more in detail about it at the end of the video “Plate leg armor in Kastenbrust style”. The holes in the thin sheet can be pinched with the chisel, not drilled. Maybe I will try to do the helmet with more authentic methods. After all, small hand instrument can be replaced by 2-3 apprentices who would work in exchange for food. I admit I wouldn’t refuse it. There are no hinges on the originals for the fixation of the closed visor. Which is why I made the lower button similar to those that were used in the 15th century. But the top ones I made my way. The thing is, I tried a lot of different buttons, loops, and hinges, and a lot of them didn’t satisfy me because they were not reliable. While in the Medieval it was good enough to have 1-2 loops to survive 1-2 hits on the helmet, now the goal is for the fixation mechanism to withstand 20-30 strong hits on the head. The patterns of medieval and modern fights are very different. And to repeat without thinking what was made in the 15th century can result in serious trauma. Which is why I made 4 fixating mechanisms and added special holes so that in the case of breakage one could screw in the bolt right then on the tournament and fixate the visor. Thank you for watching until the end and see you in the next video!